The Unification of Helicopter & Gyrocopter; Plus
This project is the design, development and construction of a Very Light Rotorcraft that will be significantly easier to fly, more efficient, and eventually faster, than current helicopters are.
~ comprising ~
The utility inventions on this site are openly and publicly disclosed on the Internet to negate an entity from patenting them, to the exclusion of all others whom may wish to use them. ~ Reference patent law 35 U.S.C. 102 A person shall be entitled to a patent unless - (a) the invention was known ... by others in this country, ..., before the invention thereof by the applicant for patent.
"The ubiquitous nature of cross-coupling constitutes one of the chief reasons why piloting this type of aircraft requires such high skill levels developed through long training programmes"~ Gareth D. Padfield
Two counter-rotating intermeshing rotor disks eliminate the need for a tail rotor. This reduces the demands on the pilot in coordinating the cyclic, collective and pedals. In 1948 the symmetrical Kaman K-125 was flown by a housewife with only 2 hours of ground instruction and 36 minutes of dual instruction.
This minimizes the pilot's off-axis compensation, caused by cross-coupling. In addition, it results in rapid and positive responses to the pilot's control inputs.
The 'absolutely' rigid and bilateral symmetry of the intermeshing rotors should result in a helicopter that performs similarly to a plane. Specifically, loss of rotor rpm will not result in a 'folding-up' of the blades. Like a stalled airplane, the nose will drop and if there is sufficient elevation, the craft will fly out of the situation.
The glide ratio should be better than that of current helicopters, due to the large chord, low tip speed and positive twist.
The governor reduces the pilot's workload and eliminates low rotor speed. Low rotor rpm was the second highest cause of fatalities. The highest is wire strikes. A rotor governor (not an engine governor) provides unattended entry into autorotation, if necessary.
The amplitude of the vibrations will be reduced, due to the use of six or eight blades. The use of eight blades will totally remove the vibratory bilateral dissymitry of lift, which was experienced by the coaxial Sikorsky during fast forward flight.
The centers of mass, lift, drag, percussion etc. will be much more concentric, due to the rotors' rigidity.
The inclusion of a Pusher Prop will off-load some of the rotors' thrusts during fast forward flight.
The inclusion of Active Blade Twist (comprised of Separate Control of Root and Tip & Reverse Velocity Utilization), plus dual swashplate rotor control.
Embedded High Frequency Leading and Trail Edge Flaps are intended to give rapid short term increases in the blades' angles of attack as the blades pass through the airflow from the blades on the other rotor.
The noise level should be significantly less than current helicopters due to the elimination of the tail rotor and the lower speed of the main-rotors.
Composite Construction: Composites greatly extended the life-limit of components. In addition, the airframe weight can be reduced by up to 25%, thereby allowing more of the propulsive force to be devoted to 'payload' and performance.
Simplicity of Rotor Hub: The 'Absolutely' Rigid Rotor eliminates the requirement for flapping and lead/lag hinges. Low maintenance elastomeric bearings to be used for feathering and a single cylindrical crossed roller bearing for each mast.
Longer Component Life: The decrease in rotor-induced vibration will increase component-life and reduce pilot-fatigue.
Stability & Control: The easy of piloting should make the craft acceptable for Sport Pilot Certificate.
Reliability: The simplicity of the rotor and long-life composite construction should make the craft acceptable for Aircraft Certification.
Maintainability: The complexity of some of the components will make the craft unacceptable for the Repairman Certificate. A means of overcoming this exclusion might be by having the 'complex' items (twin-rotors, power-train & flight-control assemblage ~ similar to the Flettner) certified, and the owner is only allowed to check and replace this 'complex' assembly.
High Speed:The ABC combined with a low tip speed and active blade twist will negate retreating blade stall and reduce advancing blade compression effects during high-speed flight. A higher rotor solidity ratio plus the temporary high twist will improve lift during hover.
Aerobatics: The extreme rigidity of the rotor system plus negative pitch may allow for inverted flight.
Pictures of Full-size Mockup:
For a larger view, click on the drawing; then click on the magnifying mouse pointer.
Alternative Layouts for Consideration:
~ All material is rough and constantly under revision. ~
DESIGN, MAKE & BUY:
*Part of the Principal Assembly
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Last Revised: August 2, 2009
The above utility invention is openly and publicly disclosed on the Internet to negate an entity from patenting it, to the exclusion of all others whom may wish to use it. ~ Reference patent law 35 U.S.C. 102 A person shall be entitled to a patent unless - (a) the invention was known ... by others in this country, ..., before the invention thereof by the applicant for patent.